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What is Blood Cancer

Blood Cancer: Introduction

Blood cancer: As its name suggests, this type of cancer affects the production and function of your blood cells. Stem cells in your bone marrow mature and develop into three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. In case of cancer, the blood production process is interrupted due to the growth of an abnormal type of blood cell. The various types include Leukemia, Lymphoma and Myeloma.


Important types of blood cancer

Leukemia - This type of cancer is caused by the rapid production of abnormal blood cells in the bone marrow. These abnormal blood cells affect the bone marrow's ability of the production of red blood cells and platelets.

Lymphoma - This type of blood cancer affects the lymphatic system, which is responsible for the removal of excess fluids from your body and producing immune cells. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that fights infection. Abnormal lymphocytes become lymphoma cells, which grow uncontrollably in your lymph nodes and other tissues.

Myeloma - This type of blood cancer affects the plasma cells, which are white blood cells responsible for the production of disease-fighting antibodies in the body. Myeloma affects the production of plasma cells which results in weak immune system.



Blood cancer is a type of malignancy which affects the blood, bone marrow, or lymphatic system. Some of the common blood cancer symptoms include:

  • Weakness, Fatigue, and Malaise

  • Anemia, Shortness of breath

  • Abnormal bleeding in gums, nose, stool and urine,

  • Occurrence of fine rashes or dark spots due to platelet reduction

  • Lymph node (gland) enlargement

  • Lumps or abdominal distension due to enlarged abdominal organs

  • Minimal body strain results in bone fractures

  • Recurrent infections or fever

  • Sweating of body during night

  • Weight loss & Anorexia



Tests and procedures to diagnose blood cancers may include:

  • Blood tests such as Complete blood counts, Serum biochemistries and Serum protein analysis

  • Diagnostic imaging tests — CT scan, PET scan, and x-ray

  • Bone marrow exam

  • Lymph node biopsy

  • Image guided biopsy



The primary objective of blood cancer treatment is the complete eradication of cancer. Several therapies are provided by blood cancer hospitals in India for this disease. A few of them are as follows-

  • Chemotherapy

  • Biological therapy like monoclonal antibodies

  • Radiation therapy

  • Bone Marrow Transplantation

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